Tags: druidry

Re-Enchanting the Land (2012.a)

One of the things that has always interested me about the path of the Druid was the idea of "Re-Enchanting the Land." That is probably the real underlying reason I originally joined the AODA (Ancient Order of Druids in America). While that didn't pan out, in John Michael Druid's book The Druid Magic Handbook: Ritual Magic Rooted in the Living Earth (2008) had the idea of re-enchantment of the land as its last part, perhaps the ultimate goal in some ways.

Here are a couple of excerpts from my 2008 review on Amazon which relate to this goal:

"The idea of disenchantment and RE-enchantment of the natural world as a part of the Druid path...something that I had come to Druidry hoping that others sought! Back in the 80s I had done an art exhibit called "Earth Songs." And Ishi, played by Graham Greene, in the movie "Last of His Tribe" heard the song of the earth, asked Professor Kroeber (Jon Voight) if he could hear the earth singing, and Voight pretended he could (I think I can) and Ishi said, "What she say?" And was so upset when he learned the Professor could not hear it after all and was pretending. And then Ishi began to sing the song he heard the Earth singing. We Indians sang our prayers...songs are vital to this effort of working with the natural world. Hearing their songs, and singing back:

chanting (song) / en-chanting (put the song into) / dis-en-chanting (removing a song which was put into) / re-en-chanting (replacing a removed song)

...I also really like that JMG cautioned people from rushing out and messing with sacred places, that the neglected, ruined, and harmed placed are the places that need "re-enchantment"-- don't mess with places that retain their song! Leave the Medicine Wheel in peace, leave Mount Shasta in peace. See what you can do in that vacant lot, your backyard, that neglected patch of woods. Plus it is a longterm effort to do this work, from the acorn a mighty oak will grow, even though we may only live long enough to see a sprout..."

I haven't picked up this book in a couple of years, but recent discussions with others about re-enchantment of the land made me return to take another look. Here's an outline of chapter 8, "The Reenchantment of the World", and some of the things that popped out for me, and which may be useful for others who share this goal.

"When Max Weber spoke more than a century ago of the disenchantment of the world, he pointed to one of the greatest needs of the present age of the world. If the modern industrial world is literally disenchanted, a loss of the magic that once wove humanity and nature together into a single fabric --then one of the crucial tasks of mages today is nothing less than the reenchantment of the world." (p. 216)

Greer says, "Enchantment...is the art of awakening spiritual forces in material things" (p. 216). Note that he does not say to place new magics/spells on those things (which Pennick would term an On-lay), but to awaken inherent, existing spiritual forces. This society we live in teaches that material things are simply material, and even many religious, spiritual, or magical paths also see material and spiritual as separate. Here, the spiritual forces already exist in material things, whether a tool, a plant, a place, or the land. It is a matter of awakening that which sleeps. Here, one extends the exhortation, "Sleeper, awaken!" not only to the potential within the human being, but to the spiritual forces in the Land. RJ Stewart's Underworld Tradition focuses on awakening the Sleepers in the Land.

Greer's take on reenchantment of the land is a matter of reweaving this connectedness between human and nature. "...The web of enchantment that unites humanity with the land has effects on nonhuman nature as well. Human cooperation with the cycles of nature, old traditions teach, brings balance and fertility to the natural world." (p. 217-218)

This is true in every indigenous tradition, and even the older medieval practices of Christianity included prayers and rites for the fertility of the fields and livestock. Many of these traditions also continue today. For example, the Pennsylvania Dutch had many prayers and practices to ensure the health and safety of one's farming livelihood, as evident in Hohman's "Long Lost Friend."

"Just as ignorant and arrogant human actions can create wastelands out of forests, human actions guided by wisdom and a clear sense of ecological reality can not only turn wastelands back into thriving ecosystems but help nature flourish even more abundantly than she does on her own." (p. 218)

An excellent example of this was the original Findhorn gardening experiment on the coast of Scotland, where a small group of people there, according to their various gifts and understanding, combined organic gardening techniques with communication with the nature spirits, devas, and landscape angels to produce unparalleled abundance and health in their gardens.

"Enchantments so potent take centuries to establish, and --at least according to tradition-- also need the conscious cooperation of other beings, ranging from animals and plants through nature spirits to the great powers of the cosmos that human beings call gods and goddesses. Even a lifetime spent in Druid magic can only begin the process of restoring the ancient web of enchantment. Still, no other application of the art of magic has so much relevance to the needs of today as the work of reawakening the enchantments of the Grail and healing today's Waste Land." (p. 218) --There will be more on the Grail and the Waste Land to come.

So what are some of the things Greer mentions in this chapter on the reenchantment of the Land?

-Cleansing the Land: Not only physical things like planting trees and erosion control; magic can assist in the breakdown of toxins in the soil, speed the healing of the land, protect healthy places, change attitudes in despoilers. Find a damaged place, a refugia, that needs your help, but do not go to some sacred place and try to do something there. Pick someplace close to home, a place or patch you see everyday. Greer provides here an example of a cleansing ritual, which as always with magic, begins with meditation, scrying/divination as to the propriety of doing so, prayer (and I would add, purification). It is a prayer connecting the elements, the directions, and the telluric current, along with the sky, sun and moon. Then pick up some trash or do something constructive at the place to anchor the effects.

-Restoring Fertility to the Land: First, cleansing and purification must be done. Restoring fertility is the second step. It is a matter of connecting the solar and telluric currents at the site. Barrenness is due not only to the damage or filth/toxins on/in the land (which is addressed through cleansing first), it is a blockage between the telluric and the solar, sort of like how chi is blocked in bodily illnesses and acupuncture can assist. Greer mentions several Druidic methods to clear the blockage. His Inner Grail working moves the nwyfre (life force) in the place where it is done. If necessary, you can do this internally on the site (it must be on the physical site, not just in your head) with Greer's practices of the Three Cauldrons, the Dragon Currents, and the World Tree. A second method is to plant and bless a tree and care for it and sustain it on the site. A third method involves setting up a standing stone, which does not have to be large at all, even as small as 1 or 2 feet, with one third underground and two-thirds above. The stone will naturally begin the knitting of the solar and telluric currents itself, but Greer gives a working to assist the stone, best done between Imbolc (approx. Feb. 2) and Alban Heruin (Summer Solstice, approx. June 21). So now would be a good time to set up a stone, especially in the morning before noon, and on a day when the Moon is waxing. Read the signs (divine or scry) beforehand of course. The essence of the working combines Greer's system, including the practices mentioned above, united within the stone. Those interested are referred to Greer's book for the details.

-Consecrating Sacred Spaces: Even though one should not tinker with existing and ancient holy places, you can certainly create one's own sacred spot in an otherwise ordinary location. Greer recommends this, as we certainly need more holy places, large and small, as these become focal points for the healing and reenchantment of the Land. Small shrines are such spots, roadside shrines such as seen in Japan. On a personal note, I have seen these shrines and memorials along roadsides here too; most common are roadside memorials for those killed in auto accidents, to provide peace and remember one's loved ones. However, a note of caution: once you enchant and establish a holy place, it remains holy. Not only meditation or divination is necessary, but observation and asking the place itself if that is its wish. Contact with the Genius Loci is a prerequisite; you may also dedicate it to a particular deity or saint. Grottoes or shrines in people's yards with a statue of Mary are also examples. If so moved, you might also make a stone circle (a smaller version like those in Britain) or a labyrinth.

Finally, I would leave you with this:

=Whether one feels inspired as a gardener to plant organically and with the larger needs of the land and its wild things kept in mind;
=Whether one feels inspired to work politically or ecologically or scientifically or educationally to do one's best to protect and restore habitat and the diversity of life, worldwide or locally;
=Whether one feels inspired to pray in one's church or other religious path, or in one's indigenous tradition, with others for the health of the land, its water and air, the crops we need for food, and the rest of the plant life we depend on, the animals that provide enjoyment and companionship;
=Whether one works using magic or other traditions to begin this reenchantment of the Land...

This is the common Work we can all do, and which will benefit All.

Now the charge to us all is this: Look around you for a tree, a patch of weed or soil, a vacant lot or alleyway, a tangle of brush or weeds, or damaged ground...it will call to you, it will say "Look at me"...and begin that Work anew. I begin this Work and life of prayer for our world anew, today, myself.

On Magic and What it is really about

I am looking over the list of my projects, some well-along, some partially-completed, some only a concept on a list, some a series of notes on scratch paper... and I think, which, if any, is worth doing? Are any of them? How does one choose?

BTW, I have come to the point that as far as magic goes, maybe we just need to focus on:

1. each of us is a mystery
2. each of us manifests an aspect of the great mystery in particular ways
3. each of us is magical
4. each of us manifests magic in particular ways
5. our role is to do so
6. reading ad infinitum various magic books and trying different paradigms is an exercise only, not a recipe to follow
7. we need to self-reflect and do our own sorts of magic, the stuff we are born with and are meant to do

THAT's the exciting stuff that actually works and never becomes boring or rote! or never puts you under the power of another --unless hierarchy IS your sort of magic, which it is for some, but i don't think it is for others. And maybe such labels as "mage" "alchemist" "astrologer" "witch" "druid" etc. are part of the problem!

Beith: New Beginnings and Yearning for that Which Cannot Be

I thought about doing some intuitive cards based on the Ogham symbolic system, which is based on Celtic symbolism. But instead of coming up with yet more flowery and romantic Celtic imagery, I decided to go with the appropriate Celtic symbols of trees, animals, tools, time of year, birds, etc. in a more American setting. This was my card for Beith (of course we have passed Beith's season!)

Click once to go to the image page, and then once AGAIN to see the full-size image.

Beith is the Irish name of the first letter of the Ogham alphabet, meaning "birch". In Old Irish, the letter name was Beithe, which is related to Welsh bedw(en), Breton bezv(enn), and Latin betula. Its Proto-Indo-European root was *gʷet- 'resin, gum'. Its phonetic value is [b].
The Auraicept na n-Éces contains the tale of the mythological origins of Beith:

“This moreover is the first thing that was written by Ogham, [illustration of seven b's, in Ogham script] i.e. (the birch) b was written, and to convey a warning to Lug son of Ethliu it was written respecting his wife lest she should be carried away from him into faeryland, to wit, seven b’s in one switch of birch: Thy wife will be seven times carried away from thee into faeryland or into another country, unless birch guard her.

On that account, moreover, b, birch, takes precedence, for it is in birch that Ogham was first written."

In the medieval kennings, the verses associated with Beith are:
Féocos foltchaín: "Withered foot with fine hair" (Word Ogham of Morann mic Moín)
Glaisem cnis: "Greyest of skin" (Word Ogham of Mac ind Óc)
Maise malach: "Beauty of the eyebrow" (Word Ogham of Culainn)
(Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beith_(letter))

The symbolism here is as noted in The Druidry Handbook, by John Michael Greer (2006, p. 87-88). See if you can find all the symbols in this image:

BEITH (Pronounced "Beh"): "Being"
A few of beginnings and purification

Tree: Beith - Birch
Sound value: B
Color: Ban - a dull white like birchbark
Bird: Besan - a Pheasant
Animal: Bo- a Cow
Tool: Biaill - an Axe
Art: Bethumnacht - Livelihood (the basic skills of living)
Elemental: Air
Season: Alban Arthuan (Winter Solstice) to Imbolc (approx. Feb 2); Calendar attribution 24 Dec. to 20 Jan.
Upright divinatory meanings: "Beginnings, new possibilities, potentials; renewal and rebirth; a favorable sign in most matters, though there may be discomforts involved."
Reversed divinatory meanings: "Blind alleys, wasted effort; creative blockages; remaining fixated on the past or on things that have been lost; longing for the impossible."

Well, it may be past the season of Beith, but both of those divinatory meanings certainly apply to me currently!

I first drew the image by hand in pencil, then inked it by hand, scanned it, then colored and filtered in Photoshop.

Midsummers and the Camas Moon

Camas flowers (Camassia quamash) in June

In a couple of days Summer Solstice/Midsummer will be here. For us in Montana and the rest of the Mountain Time Zone it will be at 11:46 pm, Saturday night, June 20, 2009. To determine the exact time where you are, check out the June Solstice 2009 article on EarthSky.

This is one of the big days for many traditions and religions around the world. This period of the year marks the Sun's greatest increase and triumph

For the Celtic Druids, it is Alban Heruin (Alban Hefin in modern Welsh). This is usually translated as "the Light of the Shore" as this date is between Alban Eiler ("Light of the Earth"- Spring Equinox, when the Earth is awakening) and Alban Elued ("Light of the Sea" Fall Equinox, - when the Sun is descending into the Sea). Vervain (verbena) was the holy herb of this day. Many consider this day under Belinus, hero-god of fire and the Sun, and Lugh, the sun-hero. For those of Arthurian bent, it is the day of Sir Gawain and Lady Ragnall (John Michael Greer's The Druidry Handbook, 2006); also see The Three Realms, AODA, and OBOD.

For the Germanic and Norse Heathens of Northern Europe, including Asatru, it is a time to honor Sunna and Baldr in blot (ceremonial feasting), all night outdoors, with the same focus on the height of the sun and its life-giving power, the greening growth of the land. Check out the Asatru Alliance for example; one of my favorite Heathen resources is Uncle Thor's Blog.

For Catholics, midsummer's day was marked by the Feast of St. John the Baptist. With the shift in the calendar, this moved from solstice on June 21 to June 24, the same that Christmas Eve/Christmas moved from winter solstice on Dec. 21 to Dec. 24-25. As with other feasts in Europe, this day was picked to overlay/co-opt/transform the pagan festivals of midsummer. this day did not mark St. John's death, but his birth, and bonfires and other pagan survivals marked this day, although cast in different terms by the Church. See more at Midsummer's and the Festivals of St. John and the Catholic Encyclopedia's article on St. John the Baptist.

For bioregional animists, one takes one's cues mostly from the local environment. The wasps and bees are out in force, and the birds are fussing over the eggs in their nests. The flowers of many plants are in transition. The fruit tree blossoms are gone, the lilacs are in steep decline, and roses are beginning to bloom.

Midsummer marks the Sun's triumph in his ascent to the highest point in the Sky; but of course that triumph is always brief, for the highest point cannot last and the descent towards fall begins right after it. This is a lesson of life: that the highest point brings descent, and the lowest point brings ascent. Mountains are defined by valleys, and valleys by mountains.

In Montana, the Native American tribes were not agriculturalists. Instead they followed the bison's movements and the ripening of wild plant foods, so they did not mark the time by festivals and solstices in the same way as Europeans or even other tribes in other parts of the U.S. However there were certain very important wild plants that were harvested now (and some folks still do this), and in June in the hills around the Helena Valley and the rest of western Montana this was the time of gathering and roasting Camas (Camassia quamash) (important! don't confuse it with the death-camas!) for the Salish (Flathead), with attendant feasting and happiness.

June - The Month of the Camas
Camas plants have a bulbous root that is usually ready for harvest in June. Camas bulbs are baked with black moss in earthen pits for three days. After baking, the bulbs were dried and stored for later use. Baked camas is delicious and has a licorice like flavor. During this time people would also be making bark baskets from cedar and birch trees. The baskets would be used for berry picking. Tipi poles would be cut now, as the bark would peel easy. When the wild roses were in bloom, the people would know that buffalo would be nice and fat. Salish hunting parties would then travel to the plains country for their summer buffalo hunt. http://www.anamp.org/culturally/pdf/elem_weather.pdf

The Blackfeet also gathered camas at this time but focused more on the buffalo.

The buffalo migrated to the open grassy plains in the early summer, the time known to the Blackfeet as the "moon of flowers." The people followed the buffalo to the Cypress Hills or other hunting grounds in the eastern region of their homeland where they would stay only as long as the buffalo. The summer hunts provided the ceremonial buffalo-bull tongues needed for the Medicine Lodge, or Sun Dance Ceremony, during the moon when "serviceberries were ripe". http://www.trailtribes.org/greatfalls/camp-life-and-seasonal-round.htm

The camas here grow in higher elevations, and I have not been able to see any this year. I did see buffalo as I noted in an earlier post. I am thinking about some ways to celebrate Summer Solstice by strengthening connections with my three friends here in my neighborhood: Tree, Hill, and Gulch. I will put out some gifts at Tree and the Gulch in the afternoon, and will go up on the Hill and light a candle (since bonfires are out of the question here!) in the evening sometime. This is a time for the wights, the landvaettir, the faerie, the nature spirits and Mother Earth herself. June is the best and most fragrant and magical month in my neighborhood.

Good-Bye AODA and Fare Thee Well

Good-bye AODA and fare thee well! The picture on my side is a large painting of a Shoshone I began recently

After walking the Druidry path as part of the AODA, we have decided to amicably go our separate ways due to apparently irreconcilable differences. I do feel it was primarily just a "poor fit" from the get-go, on both sides, though I feel we could have avoided the poor fit if AODA was clearer about its lodge-style hierarchical structure. I am no longer a member of AODA but wish them well. I wish I could change my subheading of this blog, for both our sakes, but I apparently cannot make LiveJournal do that. If you can tell me how to do that, please leave a comment below.

I had always been attracted to knowing more about ancient European beliefs, from my earliest childhood, looking at the various mysterious faces amongst the foliage on the cathedral's columns, and being raised in our indigenous Native American ways. The original "Wicker Man" movie resonated with me, not the killing of poor Sergeant Howie, but the rich beliefs and rites of that place that tuned in to nature in order to survive. Being of light skin, I was always questioned by others about my Indian identity growing up. So I decided to explore my European ancestry as well.

I discovered the Druids were famous for their wisdom and knowledge, worshipping nature spirits, trees, and strange gods in their ancient groves of oaks in Roman times. But also that they were basically destroyed by the Romans. There were some contemporary people who wore white robes and went to Solstice rituals at Stonehenge, which was cool, but that was far away and I knew nothing of them (this was all long before the Internet).

I read John Muir, Edward Abbey, and John McPhee's "Interview with the Archduid." So I came to believe that the modern form of being a Druid was essentially a European parallel to our Native American ways of worshipping the Creator in honoring nature, sort of being a religious deep ecologist that actually believed in the reality of nature spirits and the holiness of trees.

I read a few of John Michael Greer's books, such as Monsters, and enjoyed them very much as a nice blend of lore and practices. When I learned he had his own Druid order, I thought it was something I should look into and maybe join. When you are interested in "weird stuff" it is always heartening to talk to other weirdos ;-) I had looked at OBOD and ADF, which are both reconstructionist polytheistic Druid groups...but although I enjoy reading the myths and legends, I already had a God/Creator to whom I owed sole worship, the same in both in my Catholic and Native American ways. By my baptism I had made that promise. I had no intention of changing that to run after strange gods. And from what I read, AODA did not require it, only requiring civility and tolerance. So I decided to join AODA and find kindred spirits who held nature sacred and learn more of the old European ways.

I became a member of AODA in May of 2006 and then became an official Candidate. After a year of study and practice, I attained First Degree (Druid Apprentice) in November 2007. There's lot of very worthwhile things to be learned. Although, over time, I ended up butting heads with some people (Email is a blessing AND a curse!) that perhaps in real life I might never have had any problems with. In real life, we might have been good friends. Virtual life is its own animal entirely, and I offer my apologies for any hurts I may have inflicted, as anyone who knows me knows I might be gruff at times, but I am too much of a softie for my own good. After a long period of mishaps and problems, I just decided to cut the cord to save all our feelings. I was looking for something I couldn't find I guess. I guess despite all my tries, I am a terrible "joiner."

So this might be a good time and place to give my own sense of what Druidry really is, the modern day version anyways, and the little I have learned of the various larger branches. This is all of course, MY OWN OPINION! ;-)

AODA is an excellent fit for those looking for membership in a revived and respected Revival Druidry organization drawn up according to a masonic lodge-style hierarchy, which determines what is or what is not acceptable, including style/routes of communication, conceptions of deity, etc. For those who do fit in, it seems to work very satisfactorily. Some members have other paths such as Buddhism or Wicca, or are exploring other paths, mostly polytheistic, pantheistic, or monist, after finding Christianity unsatisfactory. If you are one of these folks, it might well be a very good place to belong. John Michael Greer is an outstanding gentleman and scholar, and the other archdruids and officials bring their own talents and abilities to the benefit of AODA and its members.

If you are a self-described "recovering Catholic" or dissatisfied Christian, or if you are attached to Gnostic Christianity, it will be congenial as long as you don't bring up Jesus Christ in polite conversation, not in an orthodox sense...as long as you have divested yourself of any attachment to orthodox belief, you will be ok for the most part. If you still are attached to Jesus Christ in an orthodox sense as the Son of God, the second Person of the Trinity, etc. you will find it polite for a while but chilly and eventually you will go elsewhere. In other words, you can talk about Lugh as a god, or even Thor or Kali, but not Jesus. It's good to know before you find yourself smacking your head against a brick wall trying to figure out the pattern of why you are being subtly encouraged to exit ;-)

I think AODA probably should be more explicit on its philosophy the way that ADF is. AODA should be more explicit on what/who it is NOT looking for...and screen aspirants a little more strictly to avoid "poor fit" monotheists such as myself. Just a suggestion on this informal "exit interview." I would never join ADF (nor would they have me!) as I am not personally a polytheist...that would be a "bad fit" for both of us.

OBOD seems nice enough, but again it is polytheist in approach, and the required learning program (top notch in production) is rather spendy, a couple of hundred dollars for their very nice package. All you have to buy for AODA is the basic book (see AODA.org for the meat and potatoes) for under $20 and if you like what you read, then apply to be a member.

[OOPS! Edit added 01/31/09: A Druid friend corrected me in my misperception of OBOD...so I stand corrected and here is the correction! "OBOD is not a
reconstructionists druid group, and it does not require belief in a
pantheon of deities. OBOD does in fact allow for those who believe in
multiple deities, Christians, no gods at all, etc. It is really very
much a revivalist group, and allows its members to consider Druidry a
philosophy, a religion, a spiritual path, etc."]

It is odd indeed that neopaganism and all its associated groups are often quite unstable in membership, as in "high turnover". I think what happens is that the originators of most of these groups have a vision of what they want, and in these PC-times, promote themselves as bastions of tolerance. However that tolerance is often quite shallow for those that do not subscribe to their views in toto. So those who cry out for tolerance are often the same ones who end up building their own walls of intolerance.

The problem seems to be a variety of the Utopian flaw, that is, perfection cannot be planned, but only inched towards...one step forward and two back. Personally I LIKE the idea of multiple "Druidries," and let history and natural selection do the weeding out!

So farewell to my AODA comrades, may your path be shining and fare thee well! :-)
Don't forget your curmudgeonly mostly-orthodox-and-always-struggling Roman Catholic animist brother!

This is a painting of Jesus Christ I am doing for my room. I've been working on it on and off for a year or so, when I feel so moved. It's not quite done. I have been doing it through applying multiple glazes. The painting combines iconography of the Sacred Heart and Divine Mercy.

What Do I Believe Anyways?

So people are confused by my saying I am Native American, am a Roman Catholic, and yet also walk the path of Druidry and of Heathenism.

I guess I kind of don't fit in anywhere. I believe in God the way the average American used to, as in the Pledge of Allegiance or "God Bless America". I never found a need to break it down and get too specific. God made everything, God made me, etc.

There's no conflict with the Native American world on that score. The Creator made the world, etc. My God though is not very much like the one in the Old Testament in killing everyone who doesn't do it the "official approved" way. God to me is much bigger than that.

The difference is in the details. To me everything has a soul, which is not how the average Catholic believes. I do believe in Jesus, and the Holy Trinity. Even those times I am not sure, I choose to believe with my free will. I took an oath as part of my baptism and confirmation, and despite certain things I don't agree with, I just try to stick with it. So yes, I am a practicing Catholic, but I am not untroubled.

See, I just don't trust what everyone is selling, hook line and sinker. I probably go with the Catholic way up through the Apostles Creed. But I don't believe that if you don't believe the exact way you are supposed to, that you go to hell.

I have no doubt there may be other gods and goddesses. I just haven't experienced any of them. Why would I turn my back on the God I know that has seen me through life so far, to run after some other gods I never had dealings with? However I don't think they are demons etc. I guess I really don't know anything about them because they never talked to me in any way. I just go with the vague, generalistic "God." I may have lots of issues with the religion, but I try to worship only the God I was raised to know.

What I DO focus on, that agrees more with Druidic, Heathen, and Native American ways and might be called heretical by Catholics, is a focus on ancestors and on the spirits of the land (hills, creeks, trees, wind, thunder, etc.) I don't "worship" them, but I give them gifts and food out of friendship and respect.

Maybe I am sort of on that "cusp" of belief that the ancient rural pagans dealt with for hundreds of years during the slow conversion of Europe...the blend of Catholic and pagan ways, where you go to Church and Mass and say your prayers to the Most High and His Son Jesus Christ, and pray through Our Lady, but make offerings of tobacco to the Thunder and the Fire, speak to the Wind, and thank our Mother Earth and Father Sun, and leave plates of food for the hungry spirits in the dark.

I worship only God Who Made All Things, and I confess Jesus Christ as my Lord and Savior, but as the Lakota say "We are all related"...for God made us all..the Sun, the Earth, the Bear..."All Things Seen and Unseen"...and you can never have too many friends. Ultimately, I put my trust in Divine Providence and my family, with my hand on my pistol for added measure.

Finding a Route to Community Engagement: Another Triad

I think we are really searching for the common denominator here, not necessarily the "lowest" common denominator, but the most appropriate common denominators. Is it Druidy? Is it a particular type of Druidry? Is it Celticism? etc....

I think a post the other day from John Michael Greer gives us something to work from.

"Basically, as I see it -- and it's very much a personal perception, not
something about which dogmatism is appropriate -- the central principles
of Druidry (as the Druid Revival reinvented it, of course) are reverence
for nature, respect for the individual, and participation in the Druid
tradition. There are any number of changes that can be rung on that, but
by and large a Druid nowadays is somebody who experiences the sacred in
or through nature; who claims the right to make up his or her mind about
the issues that matter, and grants that same freedom to others; and who
finds some things in the 300-year accumulation of hardware that is the
Druid Revival tradition useful in his or her spirituality."

So the essentials are, appropriately enough, another Triad, characteristic of Druidry:

1. Reverence for nature and the experience of the sacred in nature, with a resulting nature-based spirituality.

2. Respect for the individual, and that individual's free will and right to make up one's own mind. This is fundamental to the inherent sovereignty of the individual. This is most appropriate for Druidry, as the ancient Druids of the Celts led the fight for independence and sovereignty of their people, nations, and cultures against imperial Rome. The implication for today is a corollary that each individual has this inherent free will/sovereignty, which provides a basis for mutual respect.

3. Participation and engagement with the Druid tradition, however one defines it. This last element could provide some dissonances between some people whose view of and definition of Druidry is different, but as long as #1 and #2 above are in place and are foundational values, people should be able to find their way through it :-)

In fact, I would say that an approach based on #1 and #2 would be appealing to many, many folks, besides self-identified Druids, and could be the most inclusive and workable approach to fostering dialogue: "Nature, Spirituality, and Sovereignty." Buddhists, Native Americans, many Christians, Conservationists, people interested in natural history, various pagans and people of goodwill, could join with Druids in such a dialogue and share traditions in gatherings, workshops, talks, and common actions...not necessarily ritual as such, perhaps planting trees or cleaning a stream...something related to care for nature and for each other as sovereign individuals.

This triad is something many people, otherwise not into religions, or even hostile to weird things like Druidry, seem to be able to accept and take hold of....as many say "Well, if that's what Druids believe, then I must be a Druid..."

That's how I came to regard myself as somehow a Druid as a little kid back in the late 60s. I already had my identity as an traditional Native American, but what about all my European blood and my European ancestors, and the parts of my love for nature that were not part of my Native American traditions? How to understand and label that stirring I felt when looking at megalithic monuments, at the pagan architectural roots of cathedrals, of my love for ancient trees as elders...the Druids came closest to putting a label on that deep emotional identity. I did not know anyone could be a Druid anymore, but I decided that somehow, that must be what I was.

Ronald Hutton's book "The Druids"

I have been a fan of scholar Ronald Hutton's every since I was fortunate enough to buy and read a copy of his book Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. What that book did for helping us understand Wicca and its kin, through the deconstruction of delusional history (authenticity) and the celebration of the symbolic and functional beauty (validity), this book promises to do for Druidry.

Ronald Hutton has published a string of fine works exposing fallacies we've held concerning ancient religions and mysticisms. This volume, the first of a pair on the Druids, is one of the most devastating to prejudiced thinking. At the outset, Hutton reminds us that what we know of the Druids was produced by their enemies. Julius Caesar, likely the most famous of those, declared them the leaders of Gaul's resistance to imperial Roman invasion. Through the years, archaeologists, historians and others have attempted to form a picture of who the Druids actually were. These efforts have produced notable failures, and Hutton has taken a different tack with this book. Instead, in a carefully researched and comprehensive study, he reviews how the Druids have fared at the hands of those wishing to use their myth to create new ones.

In this finely crafted study, the author subdivides the Druid myth into themes that have been used to characterise them over the past few centuries. There are the "Patriotic" and "Rebel" Druids, "Green" ones, while others are "Wise" or "Demonic". Each of these portrayals has been forwarded by scholars, poets, social commentators, and not a few charlatans. "Patriotic" Druids have been adopted by various writers to convey the notion that Druid rebellion against the Romans was a model for others rejecting imperial incursion, in Britain, notably against attempts by the Roman Church to overwhelm Anglican Protestantism. "Rebel" Druids, Hutton considers a modern phenomenon, a form of 20th Century counter-culture - "hippies with a cause". The extensive chapter on the "Wise" Druids, on the other hand, covers a range of views. Druids as teachers, religious leaders and intense observers of Nature granted their image great influence. According to a given writer's agenda, however, this might be seen as either positive or negative. The collection and imparting of knowledge can either contribute to a society, or rend it through challenges to accepted dogmas. Druids who claimed to understand the cosmos better than Christian priests would be viewed as "heathen".

Over the course of the 18th and 19th Centuries in the British Isles, interest in the Druids waned, then waxed. As the threat of domination by the Roman Church evaporated, Druids as leaders of guerilla forces protecting British society faded. As the British Empire began its expansion, however, segments of the United Kingdom found the Druids an inspiration for giving their heritage a sounder foundation. Wales, in particular, used the Druids as the basis for its bardic tradition. One "researcher" went so far as to fabricate an extensive collection of Welsh poetry, a massive invention that went undetected for many years. The Welsh weren't alone in inventing roles for the Druids - the Scots, Germans, Irish and, of course, the British all exhibited high levels of creative skill in using the Druids for their own ends.

Because Hutton intends this book for the general reader, to be followed by a second, more scholarly volume, the present work is almost conversationally written. Each chapter opens with a summary paragraph describing the theme it will address. There are sets of drawings and photographs enhancing the text. These include those by, and of, William Stukeley, one of the leading early figures of British Druidry. Stonehenge figures largely in the narrative, as it was long thought a Druid construction. In modern times, reality notwithstanding, Stonehenge has become the focal point for a Druidic resurgence. Ceremonies, even weddings are held in the area by those thinking they are following Druid rituals. He concludes this work with mild speculation about where Druidry might tend in the future. Although the book is clearly intended for those interested in history, its excellent presentation and worldly viewpoint make it a fine read. [stephen a. haines - Ottawa, Canada]

Ronald Hutton - Wicca and other invented traditions

Historian Ronald Hutton delights in both debunking and celebrating paganism. His new study of the Druids will probably annoy their modern followers, but Gary Lachman finds him unrepentant

The Independent, UK/May 13, 2007

When I met Ronald Hutton, Professor of History at the University of Bristol, at the British Library, he had just come from lecturing to a group of sixth formers at the Camden Centre. When I asked what he had been lecturing on, he answered briskly: "Oliver Cromwell." For an author who's just published a book on Druids, and whose earlier work (Triumph of the Moon, The Stations of the Sun, Shamanism) centres on paganism, wicca, ceremonial magic and seasonal rituals, this seemed fairly mild stuff.

"Did the students ask any questions about your other interests?" I asked. "No," he replied, "that's not part of A levels." Then he paused for a moment, and added: "Not yet." Given the quality of Hutton's work and the passion he devotes to it, as well as the recent academic interest in subjects like the occult, esotericism, and his own patch, paganism, I'd say it was only a matter of time.

Hutton's most recent work, The Druids, a compact and lively account of what historians and other seekers of the past have made of these "appallingly insubstantial figures", could arguably be looked at as a history of the Druids in which no "real" Druid appears. The Druids left no writings, no images and no tombs. Accounts of them, from Tacitus down, are frustratingly inconclusive, and drift from anecdotal, to biased, to forged, to sheer invention. Most of us associate them with mistletoe, megaliths and human sacrifice, and the three turn up often enough; but the fact is that the Druids, at one time or another, have appeared as all things to all men.

Hutton gives us chapters on "The Patriotic Druids", "The Wise Druids", "The Green Druids", "The Demonic Druids", "The Fraternal Druids", "The Rebel Druids" and, perhaps most important to his popular readers, "The Future Druids". Like the Knights Templar, at least in the British Isles, the Druids have been a handy peg on which to hang a backpack of imaginative, insightful, and sometimes half-baked ideas, dealing with national identity, religious revelation, ancient societies, nature and ourselves. When I mentioned that it seemed like a history of what people have thought about the Druids, Hutton eagerly agreed.

"My colleagues would kill me for saying this, but historians are increasingly conscious of the fact that we can't write history. What we can write about is the way in which people see history and think history happens." And turning my remark back at me he continued, "So, is this a book about Druids with no Druids in it, or are the real Druids these amazing characters like William Price, William Stukeley, Iolo Morganwg and the rest?"

Price, Stukeley and Morganwg, from the 18th and 19th centuries, are only three of the most colourful, influential and significant figures in the history of what Hutton calls "Druidry" rather than Druidism. By this he means "things that Druids believe and do or are thought to have believed and done", as opposed to a specific set of ideas associated with the older term. Hutton is attempting a kind of phenomenology of Druids, a descriptive account, eschewing judgements on what is "real" or not, although, to be sure, he doesn't hesitate to point out when absence of evidence suggests an unreliable interpretation. As he told me: "I don't have any strong personal beliefs. I don't have a faith in the way that religious people have a faith. I find pagans and Druids absolutely splendid people and my focus is on them, rather than on any set of beliefs or ideas."

Iolo Morganwg - which translates as "Eddie from Glamorgan" - William Stukeley and William Price, as well as the other striking personalities that crowd the book, held some very strong beliefs indeed. Iolo, who, like Thomas Chatterton, was one of literature's great forgers, inventing Medieval Welsh sources for his own brand of Druidry, was "the spiritual father of modern Welsh nationalism", and "gave modern Wales its central cultural institution, the Gorsedd Bards". He was also a polymath and a laudanum addict. William Stukeley "put Druids on the mental map" of Britain, linking them to Stonehenge and other megalithic sites (erroneously, it seems), and "was the founder of field archaeology", while imagining ancient Druidic processions along the uprights at Avebury. William Price, a political firebrand and perhaps the most fascinating of them all, is remembered "more for what he wore than for anything he said or wrote". Rightly so: Price's everyday attire included scalloped emerald green jackets and trousers with scarlet lining, long hair and beard, topped off with a fox fur hat, tails attached. Among other things, Price is responsible for making cremation legal in England, a result of his arrest and trial after lighting the funeral pyre of his baby son, whom he had named Jesus, in 1884.

Most readers will delight in these and other accounts of fantastic dreamers and eccentrics, but Hutton makes clear that they're not simply entertaining but "really quite effective characters, who wouldn't have done the things they did were it not for their Druidry". But he has a still deeper agenda. The Druids, like his earlier work, explores the notion of "invented tradition"; something, he writes, "that relies upon an original foundation myth that has subsequently been disproved but has made itself worthy of respect in its own right." Both wicca and neo-paganism fall into this camp, their claims to ancient lineage being undermined while their significance as post-modern religions is celebrated in his brilliant Triumph of the Moon.

Predictably, Hutton finds himself defending his position on two fronts. Neo-pagans, clinging to the notion that their beliefs are part of an ancient nature religion, and radical feminists upholding the idea of a primeval matriarchal society (which Hutton finds "rather delightful"), scorn Hutton's refreshingly cheerful acceptance that there seems little evidence for either of these. And his less unbuttoned colleagues shake their heads at his optimism about Druidry and other "alternative spiritualities" as valid contemporary religions. He has a very pragmatic, creative attitude, recognising that factual error can still produce beneficial results. We may not be able to "get it right", about the Druids and other people of the past, but "we can look upon the past and how it works for us, and call upon it in order to make the future".

Hutton's kind of pagan or Druid is very up to date, online, "showing respect for the individual and responsibility to the environment", and not fearful of the modern. Paganism today, he says, is "a way of trying to get the best out of modernity, while discarding the bits that most of us hate". And while he wouldn't call himself "a spokesperson for paganism" - which, it's been said, is the "only religion England gave to the world" - he acknowledges his debt to it. "I could never have managed to write the books that I have without the welcome and the support I've received from pagans and Druids."

Given that the West has been reinventing its identity since the Renaissance, that we should continue to do so today shouldn't come as a surprise. "It's part of our reclaiming ourselves as modern," Hutton says. "Of getting a sense of who we are and what we're doing here, where we've come from , and why we are who we are. It's simply thrilling."

Ronald Hutton's "The Druids" looks like a book that should be on every modern Druid's bookshelf...those who have come to grips with their history...and especially those who have yet to do so!

Constructing a Local Cosmology II: Local Cycles and Events

Last time we looked at how one might approach the aspects of time and annual cycles in the construction of local cosmology. I have been focusing on the underlying natural systems of the Helena Valley. However, the city of Helena is growing rapidly, as Helena has been "discovered" over the last ten years or so, much as has a lot of the rural West due to urban flight. When I was growing up, the population of Helena was about 23,000. The 2000 census figures put Helena's population at almost 26,000...but rapid growth in the valley, especially in the North Valley, put the population in 2000 at nearly 68,000. That was 8 years ago, and I believe the population is well over 70,000 and perhaps nearer 80,000, growth has been so rapid. This means that the urban aspects of Helena must be accounted for in any effective cosmology. This includes Helena's urban cycles as well. Helena and its local populace has several traditional local festivals and events that should be included. I was reminded of this by a post on the AODA list the other day by John Michael Greer, who stated that druidry was not only rural, but urban, and this is an issue that must be addressed:

Every Druid has a different Druidry, just as every environment -- urban
as well as any other -- has its own resources and possibilities to offer
the Druid. To my mind, in other words, there's no one answer to this
question. Some questions to get you started, though:

What are the natural cycles of the city where you live?
What living things thrive in your city?
What are the gods, spirits, and energies of your city?
How does your city relate to the elements of air, fire, water, and earth?
What might you invoke into your city, using the tools of Druid ritual?
What might you banish?

I will answer the first question here, to the best of my ability. Following is my initial run at the generalized natural (resources, meteorological, astronomical, etc.) and cultural cycles of Helena (secular events, local festivals, and Christian cycles -I am Catholic as well)...whew!

Fall: Sept.-Nov.

Labor Day (noticeable end of the Helena cycle; end of outdoors living except for hunters)
School and football season starts (practical beginning of the Helena cycle)
Birth of the Virgin Mary
Grandparents Day
Our Lady of Sorrows
Fall Equinox/Alban Elued
Archangels Day/Michaelmas
First frost in the mountains; leaves turning yellow

Feast of Guardian Angels
St. Francis of Assisi
Hunting season: bowhunting, then deer and elk rifle season
Elk begin bugling/rutting
All Hallows/Halloween/Samhuinn
First Snow

All Saints
All Souls
Veterans' Day
Geese are seen flying south
Deer rut
Christ the King
Gearing up for Christmas

Winter: Dec.-Feb.

Advent (4 Sundays before Christmas)
Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Winter Solstice/Alban Arthuan
Christmastide (Christmas to Epiphany: 12 days of Christmas)
Holy Family
Holy Innocents
End of Tax Year

New Years Day
Mary. Mother of God
Feast of Epiphany
Baptism of the Lord
Dr. Martin Luther King Day
Septuagesima/Ordinary Time
Ice Fishing
Deepest Winter (much snow and ice)
Chinook winds can occur

Feast of the Presentation of Our Lord (Candlemas)/Groundhog Day/Imbolc
Chinook winds can occur; snow and ice
St. Valentines Day
Presidents' Day/ Washington's Birthday
Ash Wednesday/Lent begins (6 weeks before Easter)

Spring: March-May

St. Patrick's Day
St. Joseph's Day
Barren month; Very windy and cold; brown grass and mud; good to fly kites
Spring Equinox/Alban Eiler
Annunciation of the Lord
First Greening; first sprouts late in the month or in April; trees budding/greening

Palm Sunday/Passion Sunday/Passiontide (2 weeks before Easter)
Triduum (Holy Thursday/Good Friday/Holy Saturday/Easter Sunday)
Feast of Divine Mercy (Sunday after Easter)
Income Tax due
Robins return
Ordinary Time begins again
Gardening begins; tulips, crocus, and bulb plants emerge
Deer fawns and other births; Bears and cubs emerge from hibernation

MAY (Mary's Month)
May Day/Beltane/Belteinne
Mother's Day
School is Out for Summer
Things are growing, wildflowers in profusion
Ascension of the Lord (Helena has a Mount Ascension)
Pentecost Sunday (40 days after Easter)
Vigilante Day Parade (local parade by highschool students celebrating spring, local history and coming adulthood/freedom)
Memorial Day (outdoors life commences; camping)

Summer: June-Aug.

End of School and Graduation; summer vacation begins
Most Holy Trinity Sunday
Corpus Christi (Body and Blood of Christ)
Fishing Season (Creeks and Streams)
First Thunderstorm
Most Sacred Heart of Jesus
Immaculate Heart of Mary
Father's Day
Summer Solstice/Midsummer/Alban Heruin
St. John the Baptist
Bitterroot Season
Everything is green and mild; Indian paintbrush and more; blue skies

Fourth of July; month of cookouts/BBQs; the lake and fishing
Camas Season
Meteor showers (Perseids)
Last Chance Stampede (local rodeo)
Much lightning and thunder; very hot
Wildfires in the mountains; smoky skies
Sweetcorn ripe

Lughnasadh/Lammas (wheat harvest; first fruits of harvest and garden)
Feast of the Transfiguration
Last hot month
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Labor Day (end of summer; end of cycle)

AODA Essential Library: 2nd Level/Druid Companion Studies

Like many folks on the Druid Path, I am not rolling in dough, and our local library is underfunded as well it seems. As a first level Druid Apprentice studying for the level of Druid Companion, I wondered how many of the books on the AODA recommended/required lists for the various levels might be available to read free online through such projects as Google Books and the Gutenberg Project and the Internet Sacred Texts Archive and the Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

This list specifically pertains to the recommended and required readings for the coursework as part of the Second Degree level of Druid Companion; other levels will have other readings. I did not include any of the books for the Spiral Studies at this time, because there are seven spirals and potentially dozens of books in each spiral. Nor did I include books for each region as that was part of the Level One studies, and could run into hundreds of books in total, depending on one's region.

I only actively hyperlinked the entries below with complete copies online. The others, like those with limited previews on Google Books, I gave URLs you can copy and paste as needed. There are a few additional free online books I found as full free versions online, but which are not on the core list. I took the liberty of adding some of these; my additions are marked with an asterisk *. Actually, when I did a search on Google Books for books with the keyword "druid," there are 2,030 books available with a limited preview (http://books.google.com/books?q=druid&as_brr=3) and 1,670 books available with a full view (you can read the whole thing online) (http://books.google.com/books?as_brr=1&q=druid&btnG=Search+Books). Oddly enough, when I used the "All books" search with keyword "Druid," only 1,960 books came up; even weirder, I was born in 1960!!


Adler, Margot
1986 Drawing Down the Moon. Boston: Beacon.
[No free online version]

Albanese, Catherine
1990 Nature Religion in America. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
[Limited preview at: http://books.google.com/books?id=OD0vKTkfq0EC&printsec=frontcover&dq=albanese&sig=9m0Akm4BwIKtgI-bNZgTcyHNB48]

Ashe, Geoffrey
1975 Camelot and the Vision of Albion. London: Panther.
[No free online version]

Bateson, Gregory
1972 Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Ballantine.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=FQvfqk31zFQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=bateson&sig=vOP35bjpU0LfqbENh70eNXLuQJ0]

Beck, Peggy V. and Walters, Anna L.
1977 The Sacred: Ways of Knowledge, Sources of Life. Tsaile, AZ: Navajo Community College.
[No free online version available.]

Beresford-Ellis, Peter
1995 The Druids. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
[No free version of this one online; however his 2002 book A Brief History of The Druids has a limited preview online at http://books.google.com/books?id=PIXAREdVI_QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+druids&sig=l8dHmWW7p8fmfbiejINNi-bD5ZI]

*Bonwick, James
1894 Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions. London: Griffith, Farran & Co.

Bucke, Richard
(1905)1969 Cosmic Consciousness. New York: Dutton.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=6quOVMthgwsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=richard+bucke&lr=&sig=bbgnpAjWvmaLMzEHybJHvUwcb28]

Campanelli, Pauline
1998 Rites of Passage: The Pagan Wheel of Life. St. Paul: Llewellyn.
[No free online version available.]

Campanelli, Pauline
1989 Wheel of the Year: Living the Magical Life. St. Paul: Llewellyn.
[No free online version available.]

Carr-Gomm, Philip
1993 The Druid Way. Shaftesbury: Element.
[No free online version available.]

Carr-Gomm, Philip
2002 Druidcraft: the Magic of Wicca and Druidry. London: Thorsons.
[No free online version available.]

Carr-Gomm, Philip, ed.
1996 The Druid Renaissance (London: Thorsons, 1996; also published as The Rebirth of Druidry).
[No free online version available.]

Chadwick, Nora
1966 The Druids. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
[No free online version available.]

Cunliffe, Barry
1992 The Celtic World. London: Constable.
[No free online version available.]

Dass, Ram
1978 Journey of Awakening: A Meditator's Guidebook. New York: Bantam.
[No free online version available.]

Wolfram von Eschenbach
ca. 1200-1225 Parzival (Percival).
Parzival at Bibliotheca Augustana.

Evans-Wentz, W.Y.
1966 The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries. New York: University Books.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=WfZu7lwy5msC&printsec=frontcover&dq=evans-wentz&lr=&sig=Ro9GbXP72Pwa0_Mk11Ua7f_j6cY]

Gantz, Jeffrey, trans.
1976 The Mabinogion. London: Penguin, 1976.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=4cSMy-lJwNEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=jeffrey+gantz&lr=&sig=bN_qWC6Xv_t-CkV1wVUeEyHGU2U]

Gantz, Jeffrey, trans.
1981 Early Irish Myths and Sagas. London: Penguin, 1981.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=jKQPlg6P3LMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=jeffrey+gantz&lr=&sig=Q1CIDAk537fB3QXK7Mnfyc5Q4VU]

Geoffrey of Monmouth
1966 History of the Kings of Britain. Penguin Books.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=NcQPSg_11X8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=geoffrey+of+monmouth&lr=&sig=ApVCUK7fiFKGyZgrjlEAucN4oMw]

Gray, William
1971/1980 Magical Ritual Methods. London: Helios.
[No free online version available.]

Greer, John Michael
1998 Inside a Magical Lodge. St. Paul: Llewellyn.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=CxIGlMD6_pgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=john+michael+greer&lr=&sig=jhC_d_0Mlv-j3SUEpYwoSsbCQgY]

Greer, John Michael
2006 The Druidry Handbook: Spiritual Practice Rooted in the Living Earth. Red Wheel/Weiser.
[Limited preview available at http://books.google.com/books?id=ItzbLZgVW2IC&printsec=frontcover&dq=john+michael+greer&lr=&sig=fYj6IDFMEQoCxsdojZooLJwZn9U]

*Greer, John Michael
2008 The Druid Magic Handbook: Ritual Magic Rooted in the Living Earth . Weiser Books.
[No free online version available.]

Grimes, Ronald L.
2002 Deeply Into the Bone: Re-Inventing Rites of Passage. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=v_AXM_qgwTAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ronald+grimes&lr=&sig=uQKMBvemkg_fRVkAFr7PHLzTO3Q]

Harvey, Graham, ed.,
2000 Indigenous Religions: A Companion. London: Cassell, 2000.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=aAvB4m7lFhAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=graham+harvey&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=CZE0NoA98siLLKXdStj_ZG6bIkY]

Harrow, Judy
2002 Spiritual Mentoring: A Pagan Guide.
[No free online version available.]

Hoeller, Stephan A.
1975 The Royal Road: A Manual of Kabalistic Meditations on the Tarot. Wheaton, IL: Quest.
[No free online version available.]

*Hutton, Ronald
1993 The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Wiley-Blackwell.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=ifjw5Ce_NgEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ronald+hutton&lr=&sig=VtSqGkfdUjtXLaIIXr3QU4N42yg]

Hutton, Ronald
1996 The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=0WhvTFmRDCQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ronald+hutton&lr=&sig=Js2Gr8TTteBx2luzrjxIPOUj7qk]

Hutton, Ronald
*2006 Witches, Druids and King Arthur. Hambledon & London.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=JBEYAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+druids]

Hutton, Ronald
*2007 The Druids. Hambledon Continuum.
[No free online version.]

Huxley, Aldous
1970 The Perennial Philosophy. New York: Harper and Row.
[No free online version.]

James, William
1902 The Varieties of Religious Experience, A Study in Human Nature.
[http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/621; and hyperlink version at http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/james/toc.htm]

Kendrick, T.D.
2003 Druids and Druidism. Minneola, NY: Dover. Also published as The Druids, or a Study in Celtic Prehistory.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=7WZAWAIydvoC&pg=PA103&dq=kendrick+druid&lr=&sig=8UWNFPuBzOIlnIpMta77MwH9N-g#PPR2,M1]

Gareth Knight,
1983 The Secret Tradition in Arthurian Legend. Wellingborough: Aquarian.
[No free online version.]

Lao Tsu
1972 Tao Te Ching, translated by Gia-Fu Feng and Jane English. New York: Vintage.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=KpWSh9GGhHUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=lao+tzu&sig=_y5qdl6dCqVLVcAAeoPgcLErUBw]
==[An earlier translation by James Legge is also available free online at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/216]

Leopold, Aldo
1949 A Sand County Almanac. New York: Oxford University Press.
[Limited preview at http://books.google.com/books?id=LICERWI0YJYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=aldo+leopold&sig=uToXMxZgaM8yaSaqbfOT5mSJ9Pk]

Lovelock, James
2000 Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[No free online version.]

Malory, Sir Thomas
Le Morte d'Arthur, Vol 1. Vol 2.

Matthews, John and Green, Marian
1986 Grail Seeker's Companion: A Guide to the Grail Quest in the Aquarian Age. Wellingborough: Aquarian.
[No free online version.]

Margie McArthur,
1998 Wisdom of the Elements: The Sacred Wheel of Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press.
[No free online version.]

Moore, Thomas
1992 Care of the Soul: A Guide for Cultivating Depth and Sacredness in Everyday Life. New York: HarperCollins.
[No free online version.]

Murphy, Michael
1993 The Future of the Body: Explorations Into the Further Evolution of Human Nature. Los Angeles: Tarcher.
[No free online version.]

Nichols, Ross
1990 The Book of Druidry. London: Aquarian.
[No free online version.]

Nollman, Jim
1990 Spiritual Ecology: A Guide for Reconnecting With Nature. New York: Bantam.
[No free online version.]

Owen, A.L.
1962 The Famous Druids: A Survey of Three Centuries of English Literature on the Druids. Oxford: Clarendon.
[No free online version.]

Piggott, Stuart
1985 The Druids. New York: Thames and Hudson.
[No free online version.]

Ponce, Charles
1991 The Game of Wizards: Roots of Consciousness and the Esoteric Arts. Wheaton, IL: Quest.
[No free online version.]

Pufendorf, Esaias
*1886 A Dissertation Upon the Druids. Edinburgh.

Alwyn Rees and Brinley Rees,
1961 Celtic Heritage: Ancient Tradition in Ireland and Wales. New York: Thames and Hudson.
[No free online version.]

Ross, Anne
1967 Pagan Celtic Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
[No free online version.]

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